What is 3D printing?

                          3D PRINTING - 3D BIOPRINTING


  Nowadays we all are lisning about human heart fail and human organs fails in previous time it is not possible to make human organs again but nowadays with the help of technology it is possible to make organs again and fit into human body with the help of 3D printing lets move further and take more information about 3d printing.


3D PRINTING
3D PRINTING

What is 3d printing?


    In 3D or three dimensional printing, a solid object (solid objects) is designed on a computer by taking three dimensions of length, width, height and depth and the object is constructed by adding them to different layers according to the design. is. Typically 3D printers use plastic, as it is easier and cheaper to use. Some 3D printers may also 3D print with other materials such as metal and ceramic. The medical field has high expectations from this type of 3D bioprinting as efforts are being made in various countries to manufacture human organs through this technology.

Development of 3D bioprinting.


3d printed heart
3d printed heart


    3D bioprinting is growing at a very fast pace. The waiting list for acquiring human organs in this speed will now be a thing of the past. According to "Grand View Research Inc.", a US-based market research company, 3D bio-printing will have a market of $ 4.1 billion by 2026. Israeli scientists have created a human heart with bio-printing that includes all cells, blood vessels, ventricles and Chambers. So the question arises as to what is 3D bio-printing? And if it continues to grow at this pace, then its human health What will be the effect on heart and heart disease?

3D printing arousing great hope to human.


    3D printing has traveled fast in its short history - which has a clear impact on the medical world. In the year 1983, Charles Hull 3D printed a small black Anjan (Ivash) cup. It was the world's first 3D printed thing. In the year 1986, he patented this technology i.e. stereolithography in South Carolina, USA and made a 3D system. Just 13 years later, in 1996, a surgeon in Texas at the Wilford Hall Medical Center in the United States created a twin model using this technique from Hull's company. The aim of this model was to find success in creating a strategy to separate the two. Eventually, the surgeons succeeded in doing this and both children were able to walk after the procedure was completed. Since then scientists have used 3D bioprinting to create stunts and splints, which are now commercially in practice.
In the year 2002, scientists succeeded in making a small kidney. Now just 17 years later, scientists have succeeded in the print of the heart. Although its size is like the size of a rabbit's heart, but this success has hidden a lot of potential and is a wonderful example of human use.

how does it work?
3D printing
3D printing


    The Freedom Reversible Imaging of Suspended Hydrogels, in essence, works using 3D imaging as the most popular technique of "fresh" bioprinting. An MRI or CT scan produces a 3D image of the organ that needs to be printed. Scientists then make prints of any other organ with the help of organic materials such as alginate, collagen, gelatin and hyaluronic acid.

Achieve success in bio-printed heart.


    The bio-printed heart is evidence of the complexity that scientists have conquered by this process. Sean V. Murphy and Anthony Atala state this very beautifully in an article titled "3D Bioprinting of Tissues and Organs". This article appeared in 'Nature Biotechnology' in August 2014. He wrote, 'In 3D bio-printing, biological materials, biochemicals and living cells are very finely positioned layer by layer. This is done with complete three-dimensional control over their functional parts and a 3-D structure is supported. There are many methods of 3D bioprinting including bio-mimicry, autonomous self-assembly, and building blocks. "

    Bio-mimicry takes care of the micro-environment of any organ by a fine-grained understanding and exactly the same type of organ is prepared accordingly. No other dimensions of any kind are used in autonomous self-assembly. Instead, it runs from the ambryonic organ development to form cellular spheroids, which together form the desired organs. Ultimately, in the "mini tissue" technique, each organ is broken into very fine parts, and then prints of those small parts are extracted. These "building blocks" join together to form a design.

In each of these methods, scientists use different types of biological materials.


    3D bioprinting extracts new tissue prints using bio-links. This bio-link is made up of living cells and bio-polymer gels which serve to give a molecular base. Biopolymer gels dissolve very rapidly into a liquid and form networks through crosslinking - these networks form the main basis for any organ. To make a living organ, it is necessary to mix it in a unicellular environment. For this, scientists take hematopoietic stem cells (stem cells that can form blood cells) from the patient's blood and give them the opportunity to produce offspring of different types of blood cells. By collecting these bio-ink layer by layer, scientists can print the whole organ.

What is the future of 3D printing?


    3D bioprinting has tremendous potential for regenerative medicine. We are now able to successfully culture stem cells and make human tissue with their help. With the help of this technique, now we can also improve nerve damage to some extent.

    In January 2018, 3D bioprinting technology very unexpectedly contributed to saving the life of a 22-year-old woman. When doctors in Dubai examined the father of this woman who was giving him a kidney, he found that there was a cancerous lump in his kidney. Naturally, they could not transplant the kidney.

    In the future, complete organ printing will be possible with complex vascular systems and organs will be available to millions of patients who are on the waiting list for kidney transplant, heart transplant, liver transplant and lung transplant.

    Not only this, specially printed replacement organs would be great for any recipient. This means that the patient to whom the organ will be placed will be free from any kind of anxiety. Cases of non-acceptance of organs will also be greatly reduced.

    Advanced 3D bioprinting will also help in creating new body parts and model organs. Scientist N.K. Sigaux, L. Porchet, P. Bretona, and S. Brosset et al wrote in the paper on Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 'The barrier that was once a convection process has now been overcome, organs and tissues of any size ( Tissue) printing has become possible, it has opened the doors to medicine-based medical imaging according to the individual. Depending on the need, the diseases from donor or donor have reduced and the result of the texture has also improved.

What are the challenges?


    Keeping the shape of the organs and creating the environment helps in the development of organs. This was the biggest hurdle earlier. The solution is to create a fine biolink. Theoretically 3D bioprinting has wide potential for organ transplantation. Exactly how these organs will work within the body is yet to be used by scientists.

    Scientists at Tel Aviv University have overcome some of the bioprint challenges of a full human heart. And that's why in the middle of April, the attention of people of India and the world went to them. Once scientists start printing organs of real size, there will be a revolution in the field of medicine 3d printing.

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