What is CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Defination and Ultimate Guide

Do you know what is CMOS ? If not then this article of today is going to prove very beneficial for you. By the way, whenever the matter comes to Integrated Circuit, how can anyone forget CMOS. 

This is because the two biggest advantages of CMOS are that what no one else can provide are its high noise immunity and low static power consumption. CMOS circuits use a combination of P-Type and N-Type MOSFET, so that they can easily implement logic gates and other digital circuits.

What is CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Defination and Ultimate Guide

If seen, CMOS has many such features and advanatages due to which it is often given place in all modern intergrated circuits. 

So today I thought why should you also be provided complete information about what CMOS means so that you too can get in touch with this great technology. Then, without delay, let's start and know what is CMOS. I always try to provide you as much information as possible, so that you will not have to go anywhere else.


What is CMOS?

The full form of CMOS is "Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor". CMOS technology is a very popular technology in the computer chip design industry and it is used broadly in today's times as Integrated Circuits. 

In many applications. In recent times, this technology is used in computer memories, CPUs and cell phones due to its many advantages. In this technology both P channel and N channel of semiconductor devices are used.

One of the most popular MOSFET technologies available in recent times is Complementary MOS or CMOS technology. 

It is a dominant semiconductor technology of microprocessors, microcontroller chips, memories such as RAM, ROM, EEPROM and application specific integrated circuits (ASICs).

The main advantage of CMOS is the comparison of NMOS and BIPOLAR technology is its smaller power dissipation. Unlike NMOS and BIPOLAR circuits, almost no static power dissipation is found in a Complementary MOS circuit. 

Power dissipates only when the circuit actually switches. As a result, it is possible that a greater amount of CMOS gates can be integrated into an IC as compared to NMOS and Bipolar Technology which can provide better performance. 

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor transistor has two types of MOS circuits:

 P-channel MOS (PMOS) and N-channel MOS (NMOS). Let us know about both these types.


What is NMOS?

NMOS is built into a p-type substrate in which n-type source and drain are diffused. In NMOS, the majority of carriers are electrons. 

When a high voltage is applied at the gate, then NMOS starts to conduct. Just like when a low voltage is applied to the gate, then NMOS starts to conduct. 

NMOS is considered much faster than PMOS, since NMOS has carriers of electrons, and they travel at double the speed compared to Holes.


What is PMOS?

P-channel MOSFETs have P-type sources and Drain diffuses into the N-type substrate. There are majority carriers in it. 

When a high voltage is applied to the gate, then the PMOS starts to conduct. Whereas when a low voltage is applied in the gate, then PMOS starts to conduct. By the way, these PMOS devices are more immune to noise than NMOS devices.


Who discover the first CMOS?

In 1963, Frank Wanlass was the first to discover CMOS. He also made a patent on it when he was doing some experiments in Fair child Semiconductor.


What does CMOS mean in Computer?

CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) This technical term is usually referred to a small amount of memory in a computer motherboard that stores BIOS settings. When I talk about some BIOS settings, it comes in system time and date, as well as hardware settings.

You may have heard terms like Clearing CMOS many times, but you may not have understood this, then it means resetting BIOS settings to its default levels. This is a very easy task but due to this, many problems of the computer are fixed.


What is the different name of CMOS?

CMOS is referred to by many names such as Real-Time Clock (RTC), CMOS RAM, Non-Volatile RAM (NVRAM), Non-Volatile BIOS memory, and Complementary-symmetry metal-oxide-semiconductor (COS-MOS ). All have the same meaning as CMOS.


How do BIOS and CMOS work together?

This BIOS is also a computer chip on top of the motherboard like CMOS, while its function is slightly different which is to communicate processor and other hardware components such as hard drive, USB ports, sound card, video card, and other hardware. Whereas a computer without a BIOS cannot understand how these pieces of computer will work together.

What is CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Defination and Ultimate Guide


CMOS is also a computer chip in the motherboard, or we can also call it more specifically a RAM chip, which means that it can normally lose its settings which is stored when the computer shut down.  

But this CMOS battery is used to provide constant power to the chip.

 When the computer first boots up, the BIOS pulls all the information needed from the CMOS chip, so that it can understand all the hardware settings, time, and different settings and work accordingly.


What is a CMOS Battery?

CMOS is usually powered using a CR2032 cell battery. This battery is called CMOS battery.

Most CMOS batteries have a lifespan that is approximately the same as the lifetime of the motherboard in which it is used. 10 years in most cases, but it may have to be replaced sometimes. 

If you see some major signs like Incorrect or slow system date and time, and loss in BIOS settings, then it shows that your CMOS Battery is dead or going to be dead.

You must replace them to fix this. It is very easy to do this together, you just have to remove the dead battery and fit it new.

Where most motherboards have a spot for the CMOS battery, on some smaller computers, such as tablets and laptops, there is a small external compartment for the CMOS battery that is connected with the motherboard via two small wires.

Some devices in which CMOS is used are microprocessors, micro controllers, and static RAM (SRAM). It is very important to understand that both CMOS and BIOS are not interchangeable terms. 

Although both of them work together for a specific function within a computer, but these two are completely different components.

When we start the computer, we have an option within the BIOS and CMOS to boot. By opening CMOS setup, you can easily change its settings that it is storing, such as date and time, how different components of the computer will start. You can also disable / enable some hardware devices by using these CMOS setup.

CMOS chips are most needed in battery-powered devices such as laptops because they use very little power and use different types of chips. 

Although they use both negative polarity circuits and positive polarity circuits (NMOS and PMOS), only one circuit type can be powered at a time.

Note The Mac equivalent of CMOS is called PRAM, whose full form is Parameter RAM.


What is the applications of CMOS?

Complementary MOS or CMOS processes are implemented very widely and together they fundamentally replace all NMOS and bipolar processes with all digital logic applications. This CMOS technology is used in the digital IC designs shown below.

    ➤Computer memories, in CPUs.
Microprocessor designs
In designing flash memory chip.
Together they are used in design application specific integrated circuits (ASICs).

These devices are used with analog circuits in many range applications such as image sensors, data converters, etc.

What is CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Defination and Ultimate Guide


Advantages of CMOS?

Let's know about the advantages of CMOS, compared to NMOS: -

It has very low static power consumption.
This reduces the complexity of the circuit.
It provides high density of logic functions in Chip.
It has low static power consumption.
It has high noise immunity.

So After reading this full article I hope you get the all answer you want and if you have any doubt then ask me in comment section and if you like the article share the article with your friends and keep supporting Thank You.....

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