What is motherboard / Types, Functions and Parts Full Explanations

What is motherboard ?

If you are using a desktop computer then you will be well acquainted with the computer motherboard but if you are not aware of it then today we will tell you what motherboard is and how it works and how many types it is.

Most people do not pay much attention to the computer motherboard, but the most important part of any computer is its motherboard or all the work of the computer depends on it. 

It holds the various components of the plant in its place and at the same time it also provides the desired electrical connectivity of all of them.

A computer is made up of components in a microprocessor, main memory, and motherboard. Along with this, controllers and some more devices are connected to the motherboard by connectors to control storage, video display and sound. 

The main part of the motherboard is its chipset. With the help of a chip, the ability and characteristics of the motherboard are visualized.

 What is motherboard

The motherboard consists primarily of central processing units, bios, memory, serial ports and controllers for keyboards and disk drives. 

Preference is given to motherboards that have at least one socket or slot in which one or more microprocessors can be installed. At the same time it has a clock generator, a chipset, slots for expansion cards, power supply connectors.

What is motherboard in Computer:

A motherboard is a part of computer hardware that can be considered as the backbone of a PC or as a more suitable mother that holds all the parts together.

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It ties together all the necessary components of the computer into which our CPU also comes. The motherboard connects all the parts of the computer and if it is designed, it is a plastic card with a layer of aluminum and copper with millions of small chips, ports on the motherboard.

Motherboard Parts:

The motherboard is made up of thousands of parts including processor, RAM and power supply. If you open your computer's CPU and look at its motherboard, then you will get confused by seeing so many different parts of it. 

Everything except the hard disk, fan and DVD drive are included in the CPU in the motherboard itself.

To know how a computer's motherboard works, we do not need to know every part of the motherboard, but you must have knowledge of the motherboard and parts of your computer and you should also know how the motherboard is connected to your computer. is.

Power Supply:

The most important thing to run any computer is power because nothing can happen without it. This is where power is supplied to the entire computer and it is also seen how much power is to be given to the chip or port.

 What is motherboard

Super I / O Chip: 

The Super I / O chip is a single chip that controls I / O devices and is not controlled by Southbridge. It controls floppy drives, serial ports, PS / 2 mouse, some keyboard functions. All the latest motherboards come with a super I / O controller chip.

BIOS Chip & CMOS Battery:

 It is the BIOS Chip that starts the boot process of the operating system. It needs extras and continuous power to start the process so it is also equipped with a battery called CMOS & BIOS Battery. This battery has more usage such as maintaining system time and date and resetting boot master password.

This chip takes hair from the boot process of the computer and carries it to the operating system of the computer. 

To reduce it, continuous power is required so it is connected to a battery to provide power and it unplugs the computer. Works on being.

Processor socket:

 CPU socket is an interface that connects the processor to the motherboard. Different types of sockets are used for different types of processors. 

It has holes in which the processor's pins are installed. Nowadays most sockets are built on the Land Grid Array architecture where pins are already available on sockets.

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The size of each socket varies and the pin number varies. The processor socket is part of the center of your motherboard.  

It processes any input given to the computer. A computer processor is installed in it because it is the brain of the computer or the center of the computer, so it is installed in the center.

CPU socket:

 The CPU socket is the part of the motherboard inside the computer to which the processor is mounted. In every computer the processor is fitted according to the capacity of the computer like you might have heard the name P1, P2, Dual core, Quad core, Octa core, Core i5, Core i7 etc.

RAM slot: 

RAM slot of the computer is included in the RAM slot. It is a small part of the computer but is a very important part. Whenever we go to buy a computer, we buy a computer with good RAM so that it works at the right speed. Could.

 What is motherboard

The more RAM a computer has, the more smooth and un-hung it will be because a computer with more RAM can run many applications simultaneously, whereas a computer with less RAM hangs when opening with more applications because it cannot handle it. Finds

Power connector:

No computer or part of the computer can run without power, so it is very important to have a power connector in the computer. 

The power connector is made up of a few pins and has 20 to 24 pins and is on the right side of the computer motherboard. From here it takes power and gives power to other parts of the computer.

Memory Slot: 

An interface is provided to place RAM on the memory slot board. It handles the modules of every computer memory. 

Each computer has different memory slots. Earlier, old computers used to have DDR Slot but now DDR3 Slot and DDR4 which are 2 are installed on the right side of the motherboard.

When you go to get a new motherboard, make sure to check which memory slot is installed. We still find computers that work on the memory slots of DDR1 and DDR2. The maximum number of slots depends on the motherboard.

Northbridge and Southbridge: 

The motherboard is divided into two parts: Northbridge and Southbridge. Northbridge is an important part of the motherboard. 

It is responsible for the flow of data between memory, video card and processor. The work of Southbridge is small; it is responsible for the flow of data between the processor and the sound card or network.

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You get both of these on the right side below the motherboard. There is also another device attached to them which we call heatsink. 

The heatsink is made of metal and its function is to provide thermal protection to Northbridge and Southbridge. 

Northbridge Memory manages the PCI Slot and the Southbridge processor manages the network card.

Ports: PS2, USB Ports, RJ-45 Port for LAN, 9PIN Serial Port, VGA Port, MIDI Port, Audio Port.

Video card slot: 

As we know from its name, it helps to play video in our computer. It is found in the motherboard at the bottom right. 

If you do not have a video card slot on your motherboard, you will not be able to enjoy the video on your computer. 

Nowadays, more than one video card slot is also available in many motherboards so that high quality games can play in those computers.

Expansion slot: 

With the help of this slot, we can install any software you have externally like - if you put software like TV tuner or video capture card etc. 

in your computer then they are installed in your computer with the help of this slot Find it. You find it right below your video card slot in your motherboard.

IDE and SATA ports: 

Both of these ports provide connectivity to storage devices in your computer and optical drives, out of which IDE ports are now rarely seen, so if you get the motherboard of your computer without an IDE port then you will not choke .

The IDE has now been replaced by SATA. The SATA port is smaller than the IDE port and works much faster than that. 

Some new variants of SATA port have also come in the market such as SATA1, SATA2, SATA3 etc. 

Only one of these is placed in the motherboard and it is selected by looking at the rest of the computer motherboard.

 What is motherboard

Front Panel Connector, USB Header, and Audio Header: The front panel connector is the part of the connection out of the box of your CPU called the power button, reset button, power led, audio connector, and USB connector.

Rear Connector: 

This connector performs the important work of connecting the inside and outside parts of the computer. 

These connectors are placed on the left side of the motherboard at the very edges where you connect the rest of your computer such as a mouse, keyboard, monitor, speaker, etc.

Expansion slots: 

Expansion slots on a motherboard enable you to connect expansion cards to the motherboard. Separate PCI cards include LAN cards, graphic cards, SCSI cards. PCI cards extend the capacity of existing motherboards.


CPU Voltage Regulator: 

It is an electronically integrated circuit that controls voltage. A voltage regulator module is installed on the motherboard and controls the correct voltage required by the CPU.  The regulator keeps the voltage constant.


Jumpers on the motherboard are small pins that enable you to configure the motherboard settings. The jumper performs various functions, for example to restore CMOS settings.


Buzzer is a speaker that is embedded in the motherboard or it is placed separately, with the help of which if any type of error occurs in the system then we get notifications through it.

Standby Power LED: 

This displays the standby power of the motherboard.

Line Port: 

It supports networking functions.

Mouse port: 

PS / 2 connects the mouse.

Parallel port: 

It connects parallel devices such as printers.

RJ-45 Port: 

This enables long connection via a switch.

USB ports: 

Enables connection to USB devices.

Video port: 

used to connect to a VGA monitor or any other VGA compatible device.

Serial port:

Connects modems or other serial devices.


Keyboard port: 

It connects PS / 2 keyboards.

Moicrophone Jack: 

The microphone is connected by this.

Motherboard Type:

 What is motherboard

Motherboards keep changing with time and design. At this time many advance motherboards started coming in which many portable things are also included, but earlier it was not so if you have purchased a motherboard, then you could make some changes to it.

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If you need anything more or new, then you have to get a new motherboard and based on this, the motherboard is divided into 2 ways. 

AT & ATX used to come before AT’s Motherboard 90’s but after 90’s they stopped being used and after that ATX motherboards started coming.

Sometimes you will hear the name of BTX motherboard also, it is also a kind of motherboard.  

Motherboards are classified on the basis of devices and usage which are as follows - Integrated, Non-Integrated, Desktop motherboard, Server motherboard, Laptop motherboard etc.

A motherboard that has ports to connect different devices is known as an integrated motherboard. All the latest desktops, servers, laptops are known as integrated motherboards

A motherboard that does not support connecting different devices is called a non-integrated motherboard.

The old desktop and server motherboards were of the non-integrated motherboard type. 

 The desktop motherboard is used in home and office as it is more commonly used in home and office for general applications such as watching movies, listening to songs, playing games etc. This type of motherboard is the most basic type.

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Server motherboards are advanced compared to desktop motherboards designed to offer higher services that are more reliable to use in 24 * 7 environments and can handle key applications. 

Server motherboards have many sockets, slots and connectors as compared to desktop motherboards.

Laptop motherboards are used to connect different parts of the laptop system. These motherboards usually have very advanced features compared to desktop motherboards and most of the work is integrated into the laptop motherboard.

History of motherboard:

Earlier there was a slot for each part in the computer and the parts were connected to each other by wires. 

Later, after the introduction of the printed circuit board, memory, CPU and other peripheral devices were introduced. 

In the 1980s, motherboards used integrated circuits that supported low-speed peripherals, such as keyboards, mouse, floppy disks.

In 1990, the motherboard started supporting the audio, video and network functions of the full range and no card was required to be attached to it. 

A separate card was used for 3D gaming and computer graphics. Earlier there were companies like Micronics, AMI, DTK, Mylex Orchid Technology in this area but later companies like Apple Inca and IBM started producing it.

Motherboard Manufacturer Companies:

Motherboards are available in various sizes and configurations. Some motherboards support 32 and 64 bit processors and operating systems. It is manufactured by several companies and each company produces boards with some standard configuration.


Asus Tesk Incorporation develops many products such as motherboards, graphic cards, networking devices, notebooks, mobile phones, and wireless networking. 

Accepted as the world's largest motherboard manufacturer, ASUS manufactures motherboards that support a wide variety of processors such as Intel and AMD. 

Motherboard manufactured by ASUS 64-bit computing technology ASUS tek Computer International plans to increase sales by 20% this year and plans to deliver 50% of the motherboard to the global market by 2018.


Intel manufactures processor motherboards and graphic cards. The Intel motherboard is available in various configurations and various form factors. It manufactures two types of motherboards, desktops and servers.


MSI is known for its high performance design and superior products. From the beginning, MSI was proud to deliver unique designs and high performance products.


 What is motherboard

It is also one of the largest motherboard manufacturer in the world and ICE motherboards are accepted worldwide.


Gigabyte technology manufactures motherboards, graphic cards, other peripheral devices, networking devices, computers, and other home appliances. 

Gigabyte makes available motherboards for different types of processors such as Intel and AMD. 

The latest board supports processors of the latest versions such as core processors and 64-bit processors.


ASROCK is a motherboard manufacturer, their motherboards are also liked by people all over the world.


Biostar is a very well known and moisture-poor motherboard manufacturer, the motherboards made by them are also liked and used by people all over the world.

Choosing the right motherboard of computer:

The laptop has the fix that you will get these things, but for a desktop computer, you can select the motherboard according to your needs like how many ports do you need, RAM Slot, PCI, Expansion Slot. 

Before purchasing a computer, decide what work you are taking for the computer and what features you will need in it.

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After that you find out on the internet what is a motherboard? What is the best motherboard for the work for which you want to buy a computer and also see a review of people on YouTube about it. 

After that when you will be able to choose the motherboard correctly and buy a motherboard with value for money.

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