What is SMPS and how does it work?

Hello friends, welcome to our website we are going to talk about SMPS and its type and how it works? And what is Bridge and how does it work? So let's start.

You must have seen many times that when the voltage in your house is more or less, then it increases the risk of spoiling all the electronics appliances in your house such as fridge, computer and TV etc., then a device for their protection Is used which is called SMPS.


What is SMPS?

SMPS has full form SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY. A power supply is an electronic circuit that is used to provide electrical power to equipment or loads such as computers or machines. 

These electrical and electronic loads require different forms of power in different ranges and with different characteristics. For this reason power is converted into required forms with desired properties using some power electronic converters or power converters.

In today's time, SMPS is being used in many things like Computers, Fridge, Microwave Ovens, DVD Players and DTH etc. Friends, in simple words, SMPS is used in electronics. SMPS operates at a voltage of 220 to 240 in all electronics equipment. 

If we talk about computer, then directly supply 240 voltage power to Computer Board, then it will burn and its board will be damaged. 

To avoid all these problems and losses, a system was designed so that after supplying 220 or 240 volts, it can be divided into different parts and divided into different parts and sent to different parts. This is called SMPS.


How does SMPS work?

So firstly current goes to the AC filter where in the process of filtering the AC filter, Nutral and Phase The bitch uses NTC, Fuse, line Filter, PF Capacitor, its output is given to Rectifier and Filter, which converts it from AC to DC which was Rectifier and the filter was with the help of two capacitors Smooth converts to DC.

Let's talk about PRIMARY CIRCUIT, after this it is given once more to the Rectifier and Filter which again converts this AC Supply to another Smooth DC (remember one thing from the transformer at home. 

The current that comes is AC and the current that comes in the battery is DC) Area after the action occurs in Output turned out that three Form A 12VOLT, 5 VOLT, 3 VOLT. This is the primary and secondary circuit of SMPS.

But the primary circuit's Rectifier and Filter connect with an Output Starter transfermer and connect with Starter which is connected with an Amlifier IC and has three Output WIRE, the amplifier IC is an area of  SMPS where There is complete management work on it.
Amlifier IC has three Major Cable Nickel Tee One is green which is Power on cable, the other one comes in Violet color which gives stand by current of +5 volt, and the third one is in Gray color, which is called Power Bood cable It is said.

All three Output cables are given to MotherBoard. The switching transistor and amplifier IC are connected with a driver and are controlled through the amplifier IC. 

From the secondary switching circuit comes a sensing wire that tells the amplifier IC that the load is increasing, then at the same time DRIVER which increases the SWITCHING Transiter on –off process, and which gets the voltage at a constant speed.

Which is + 12volt, + 5volt and + 3volt and this process is called switching mode power supply. When the power of green cable is on, then MotherBoard gets 12v, 5v, and 3v SMPS. This is how SMPS works.


What is Alternative Current and Direct Current

Now we tell you what is alternating current and direct current. By the way, current means fruit of charge. 

There are two types of direct and alternating current alternator current, there are charge fruits on both sides.

Charges in both positive to negative and negative to positive directions. If we talk about direct current. 

So the result of direct current is in only one direction, it is only from negative to positive. Let us tell you a simple example of the way we use the cell in our TV remote and clock.

It turns out to be current from only one side. Because when we put it upside down, it will not run remote and if we just put it in the right direction. 

So both our remote and the clock will start to work, this is a very good and very good example of DC current. 

An example of alternating current which comes from the transform in our house is the alternating current. 

And our computer has DC current. Should happen So SMPS is used to convert the alternating power of our house to AC to DC.What is SMPS - SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY

Types of SMPS

(1)D.C. to D.C. Converter
(2)Forward converter
(3)Flyback Converter
(4)Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter


(1)D.C. to D.C. Converter

The load is given a constant voltage supply (VOUT) that is obtained from the primary source of the voltage supply VIN. 

The value of VOUT is controlled by individual resistors of current source connected in series (RS) or shunt (IS). 

To control the VOUT through the changing IS and to keep the RS stable, a considerable amount of power is lost in the converter.

This is fed to a step-down transformer that is equal to the weight and size characteristics of a 50Hz transformer unit. 

The output of the step-down transformer is fed into the forward rectifier. 

The filtered and rectified output DC power is used as a source for the load, and a sample of this output power is used as a feedback to control the output voltage. At this feedback voltage, the timing of the oscillator is controlled and is off.

The output of the switching-power supply is controlled using PWM. As shown in the circuit above, the switch is powered by a PWM oscillator such that the power fed to the step-down transformer is indirectly controlled and therefore, by PWM as this pulse width signal and output In the output is controlled. The voltages are inversely proportional to each other.


(2)Forward Converter

Forward Converter is a type of SMPS converter that transmits current through Choke. When the transistor is completely turned off, Diode Broadcasts the power. 

Thus power flows in Load during both term but Choke keeps the power stored. Choke stores energy during ON period and sends some energy to Output Load.


(3)Flyback Converter

SMPS circuits with less than 100W output capacity are typically fly-back converter type SMPS and are a much simpler and lower cost circuit than other SMPS circuits. Therefore it is often used for low-power applications.

Irregular input voltage with constant magnitude is converted rapidly to a desired output voltage using MOSFET switching frequency is about 100 kHz. Isolation of voltage can be achieved by using transformers. 

Switch operation can be controlled using PWM control when implementing a practical fly-back converter.

Fly-back transformers exhibit different characteristics as compared to normal transformers. The two windings of the fly-back transformer act as magnetically coupled indicators.


(4)Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

This is the simplest converter based on the principle of flyback. During the conduction time, the Switching Transistor grows linearly as a Slop which is Vin / Lp.


SMPS Power Connectors

SMPS supplies power to different components of a computer system such as motherboard, hard disk drive and other components using Power Connectors. Power Supply is an Electric Connector used to carry DC Voltage. It has five types of Connector.

ATX Power Connectors

20 + 4 Pin ATX or Motherboard Connectors

CPU 4+ 4 Pin Connectors

SATA Power Connector

Peripheral 4 Pin Molex Connector


ATX Power Connectors

ATX Power Connectors are equipped with twenty Pin Connectors, out of which 6 types of Voltas are exiting. ATX is used to power supply the motherboard. The color of the wire on the pin indicates its corresponding voltage.


20 + 4 Pin ATX or Motherboard Connectors

It provides electricity to the connectors motherboard and other connected components such as RAM, Low End Graphics Card, PCI Cards, Fan etc. It is divided into two different parts of 20 Pin and 4 Pin.


CPU 4+ 4 Pin Connectors

It is divided into two parts of 4- 4 Pin. These are all 12v, they provide power to the CPU.


SATA Power Connector

It provides power to all SATA devices (Hard Disk, DVD Rom etc.).

Peripheral 4 Pin Molex Connector


Advantages of SMPS

High efficiency: The switching action means that the series regulator element is either On or Off and therefore is destroyed as a low energy hit and a very high efficiency level can be achieved.



High efficiency and low hit wastage can result in the switch mode power supply being made more compact.


Flexible technology:

Switch mode provides high voltage conversions in power supply technology, voltage step-up or Boost application or step-down or Buck application.


Disadvantages of SMPS

Noise: The biggest problem is the momentary spike resulting from the switching action on the switch mode power supply. 

The power that the SMPS performs can migrate across all areas of the spike circuit if the spikes are not properly filtered. 

Additionally, spikes or transmitters can cause electromagnetic or RF interferences that can have an impact on other nearby electronic devices, especially if they are radio signal reserving.

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