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Computer System Architecture In Operating System?

computer system architecture

What is computer system architecture?


If you re searching for computer system architecture then you are at right place here i am gone a show you full details about it and i will explain everything so without wasting time let's get start so are you excited? 

The interface between a computer’s hardware and its software is basically its computer system architecture.

The architecture can usually be easily outlined by what the computer instruction can do as per its capacity and also how they are usually specified.

Understanding basically how all this works requires a sufficient amount of knowledge of the structure of a computer and its assembly language too.

Data is constantly being moved between the CPU and memory through the various devices.

The CPU usually uses I/O addresses to direct data to particular devices.

The devices in turn use interrupts to notify the CPU and operating system of their needs.  

The genesis of the modern computers, which however, came with in the practice of storing programs in the memory. According to famous mathematician john von neumann, for a machine just like to be a computer, it must definitely include the following things-

1.Address able memory that holds both instructions and data.

2.A arithmetic logic unit.

3.A program counter.

The vital computer architecture components from von neumann’s stored program control computer are:



The central processing unit is the engine of the computer that executes programs. 


The arithmetic logic unit is the part of the CPU that executes individual instructions involving data (operands).


a memory location in the CPU which holds a fixed amount of data. registers of most current systems hold 64 bits or 8 bytes of data. 


The Program counter, also called the instruction pointer, is a register which holds the memory address of the next instruction to be executed.


The Instruction register is the register that holds the current instruction being executed. 


A register designated to hold the result of an operation performed by the ALU.


A various collections of several registers basically is there within it.



 Types of computer architecture


Given below are basically the types of Computer Architecture:


Von-Neumann Architecture


This architecture is proposed by john von-neumann, as discussed above.

Now a day’s computer we are using is usually based on von-neumann architecture.

The memory we have is a single read/write memory available for read and write instructions and data.

When we talk about memory, it is nothing but the single location which is used for reading and writing instructions for the data and instructions are also present in it.

Data and instructions are stored in a single read/write memory within the computer system.


For example-

suppose we are executing an instruction from line 1 to line 10 but now we are required to execute line 50 instead of line 11 then we jump to instruction 50 and execute it.


Harvard Architecture Harvard


This architecture is usually used when data and code is present in different memory blocks.

A separate memory block is needed for data and instruction.

Data can be accessed by one memory location and instruction can be accessed by a different location.

It has data storage entirely contained within the central processing unit (CPU).

It is complex to design. CPU can read and write instructions and process data access.

Harvard architecture has different access codes and data address spaces that is, the instruction address zero is not the same as data address zero.

Instruction address zero identifies 24-byte value and data address zero identifies 8-byte value which is not part of the 24-byte value. 


Instruction Set Architecture


To make up the architecture, instruction set architecture is needed because it has a set of instructions that the processor understands.

It has two instruction sets: one is RISC (reduced instruction set computer) and the second is CISC (complex instruction set computer).

Reduced instruction set computer architecture was realized in the 90’s by IBM. Instruction has multiple address modes, but programs do not use all of them that is the reason multiple address modes were reduced.

This helps the compiler to easily write the instructions, and performance is increased.

Complex instruction set architecture is the root of compilers because earlier compilers were not there to write programs, to ease programming instructions

The best performance is obtained by using simple instruction from ISA.




Microarchitecture is known as computer organizations and it is the way when instruction set architecture is a built-in processor.

Instruction set architecture is implemented with various microarchitectures and it varies because of changing technology.

Microarchitecture performs in a certain way. It reads the instruction and decodes it, will find parallel data to process the instruction and then will process the instruction and output will be generated.

It is used in microprocessors, microcontrollers.

Some architectures overlap multiple instructions while executing but this does not happen in microarchitecture.

Execution units like arithmetic logic units, floating-point units, load units, etc are needed and it performs the operation of the processor.

There are microarchitecture decisions within the system such as size, latency, and connectivity of the memories.


System Design


The name defines itself, the design will satisfy user requirements such as architecture, module, interfaces and data for a system and it is connected to product development. 

It is the process of taking marketing information and creating product design to be manufactured. 

Modular systems are made by standardizing hardware and software.  

We have learned about computer architecture and its types. How functionality, implementation works in processing. Instruction set architecture is needed to do the needful instruction execution and data processing should be done in a different and single memory location in different types of computer architectures. Read/write operations are performed.


What is memory space in computer architecture?


A memory is just like a human brain. 

It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in the computer, where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. 

The memory is divided into a large number of small parts called cells. Each location or cell has a unique address, which varies from zero to memory size minus one.


For example 

If the computer has 64k words, then this memory unit has 64 * 1024 = 65536 memory locations. The address of these locations varies from 0 to 65535.


Memory is primarily of three types


1.Cache Memory

2.Primary Memory/Main Memory

3.Secondary Memory


What is the basic architecture of a computer?


A computer system is basically a machine that simplifies complicated tasks.

It should maximize performance and reduce costs as well as power consumption. 

The different components in the Computer System Architecture are Input Unit, Output Unit, Storage Unit, Arithmetic Logic Unit, Control Unit etc.

So, the arrangement through which we get the maximum performance with least cost is said to be the architecture of this level.


What is layered architecture in computer networks?


In a layered approach, the networking concept is divided into several layers, and each layer is assigned a particular task.

Therefore, we can say that networking tasks depend upon the layers. 

The basic elements of layered architecture are services, protocols, and interfaces-



It is a set of actions that a layer provides to the higher layer. 


It defines a set of rules that a lawyer uses to exchange the information with a peer entity. These rules mainly concern both the contents and order of the messages used. 


 It is a way through which the message is transferred from one layer to another layer.

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